Yoko Ono is a pioneer of conceptual art and performance. Associated with Fluxus, she was a major figure in the New York avant-garde art scene as a filmmaker, experimental music composer, and vocalist. Together with La Monte Young she organized a seminal series of performances in her Chambers Street loft. In 1964, she published Grapefruit, a book of conceptual instructions, and she made 16 short experimental films between 1964 and 1972. Ono participated in documenta 1972 and 1987, and has had numerous retrospectives including those at macLYON, France, 2016; The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2015; Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, and Guggenheim Bilbao, 2013-2014; Serpentine Galleries, London, 2012; Kunsthalle Bielefield and Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead, UK, 2008; Japan Society, New York, 2001 (travelled to 13 museums); and the Whitney Museum, New York, 1989. She received the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement at the 2009 Venice Biennale.